The locally controlled immobilization of biomolecules on semiconductor surfaces will play a central role in future bioelectronics devices. Inscribing 3D structures into microchips is performed nowadays by a combination of thin film deposition and selective removal via photolithography and etching procedures. Such processes are not suited for the integration of biomolecules into microchips, since the usual etch and temper steps would cause their deterioration. Only the possibility remains to immobilize the biomolecules on the chip surface for combining the desired bio-functionality with the integrated circuit. The majority of activities in this field focus on electrically assisted immobilization in order to ensure a local control of absorbed biomolecules. This might be performed by doping lattices or - more generally - by nanotemplates, for which the minimum feature dimensions of photolithography may be arrived at (IHP technology: 0.13 µm).
In addition, innovative approaches become possible by this approach like a platform for protein crystallization. The figures shows a simulated x-ray diffraction pattern taken in a reflective Laue mode from a 5 µm thin concanavalin A layer, see Birkholz, M, 2009 A thin film approach to protein crystallography. Nucl Instr Meth Phys B. 268: 414.